Committees in English -> CPD, OIC, ICJ, COSP, ONUC, Press and UNSC

Committees in Portuguese -> CA and PE

Only UNSC will be held in pairs, the others will be individual.

 
Committees
 

Tópico A: Reforma no sistema de asilo da UE

Tópico B: Assegurando direitos de pessoas transgênero

Tópico C: Liberdade de movimento para pessoas LGBT+

Formado por 750 eurodeputados diretamente eleitos, o Parlamento Europeu (PE) tem a função de representar os 500 milhões de cidadãos da União Europeia (UE). Juntamente com o Conselho da União Europeia, o PE aprova e altera textos legislativos apresentados pela Comissão Europeia.

O tópico A do Parlamento é "Reforma no sistema de asilo da UE". Apesar de uma redução de 44% em relação a 2016, foram registrados mais de 728 mil pedidos de proteção internacional a países membros da União Europeia em 2017 – sendo mais de 538 mil atendidos. Com isso, o Parlamento posicionou-se por uma reforma do sistema de asilo da UE, pedindo pela plena participação dos Estados-membros, partilhando a responsabilidade pelos requerentes de asilo; pela ênfase especial aos jovens; e, mais importantemente, pela revisão urgente das regras de Dublin – que determinam em qual país devem ser alocados os imigrantes (Parlamento Europeu, 2018a).

O tópico B do comitê é “assegurando direitos de pessoas transgênero”. O Parlamento Europeu adotou, historicamente, sua resolução sobre discriminações contra pessoas transexuais em 1989. Apesar disso, a legislação europeia ainda apresenta um significativo problema: enquanto “orientação sexual” e “sexo” são termos claramente mencionados, “identidade de gênero” não o é. A falta dessa identificação na lei abre espaço para interpretações de que apenas homens e mulheres cis devam ser protegidos.

Por fim, o tópico C do Parlamento Europeu tratará sobre “liberdade de movimento para pessoas LGBT+”. A diferença entre a legislação interna dos países Estados-membros faz com que casais homossexuais possam perder sua herança, pensão e mesmo custódia de seus filhos a se mudar de um país para outro. A problemática se torna ainda mais complicada considerando pessoas transgêneras, que podem perder seu status civil e, portanto, não serem capazes de exercer seus direitos enquanto cidadãos.

Parlamento Europeu
PE
Cúpula das Américas
CA

Tópico A: Proteção de povos indígenas em isolamento voluntário e de recente contato

Tópico B: Amparo a povos e comunidades tradicionais

O ano de 2019 foi declarado pela Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência, e a Cultura (UNESCO) como o Ano Internacional das Línguas Indígenas. Dentro deste contexto, o tópico da Cúpula das Américas do 22º AMUN trata dos direitos dos povos indígenas em isolamento voluntário e contato inicial. Povos indígenas em isolamento voluntário e contato inicial não podem se proteger do nosso mundo, nossas doenças e nossas armas. Além disso, os países em que suas terras se encontram não são capazes de controlar a situação de maneira satisfatória. Portanto, este é um tema premente que a comunidade internacional deve discutir. Problemas que devem ser levantada são a adoção do mecanismo de proteção conjunta transfronteiriça, a fim de desenvolver instrumentos para evitar o contacto indesejável, a proibição de recursos extração, as questões de infanticídio e antropofagismo dentro de sua cultura, entre outros.

No que tange a discussão de povos e comunidades tradicionais, trazemos o termo que é em si propositalmente amplo, uma vez que inclui em sua definição quilombolas, ciganas, jangadeiras, ribeirinhas, seringueiras, entre outros. Contudo, mesmo compreendendo 5 milhões de pessoas apenas no Brasil, essas populações enfrentam diversos problemas diariamente como violação de seus direitos humanos, ocupação ilegal de suas terras, garimpo ilegal em suas terras, tráfico de pessoas, entre outros. Adicionalmente, Os povos e comunidades tradicionais estão estritamente ligados ao desenvolvimento sustentável, uma vez que os pertencentes a esses grupos possuem, frequentemente, uma relação simbiótica com a natureza, e uma visão holística de seu redor.

 
 
United Nations Commission on Population and Development
CPD

Topic A: The affordability of family planning

Topic B: Achieving financial sustainability for social security systems

Family planning is the voluntary control of fertility by providing couples with the means to plan how many children they want and when they want them. It has been proven that family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in where overall access to health services is limited, such as poorer countries. Therefore, it is necessary to make family planning affordable and more accessible in all settings, countries and social classes.

Issues regarding the capacity of nations to provide sufficient retirement benefits to an ever growing amount of old-aged people has fueled discussions and inspired a myriad of solutions. An aging population has both political and economic effects and will pressure their respective countries to maintain - and sometimes even increase - benefits (Galasso, 2006). Therefore, with the decline in fertility rates and the increase in life expectancy in most countries, the issue of how to balance a constantly growing pension demand and a smaller labor force is more pressing than ever.

 

Topic A: Promoting whistleblower protection

Topic B: Transparency and access to information

The Conference of the State Parties to the UN Convention against Corruption (COSP) is one of the committees that guide the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) work. On topic A, delegates shall discuss mechanisms to implement Article 33 of UNCAC, "Protection of reporting persons". According to Transparency International (2013, p. 2), "whistleblowers are among the main triggers for successful corruption investigations", a scenario that is still very true in 2018 and most likely will still be so in 2019, when a new meeting of the COSP will be convened.

Another important tool on combating corruption is transparency and access to information. This empowers citizens to hold their representatives accountable for their decisions and allows them to have active participation in the fiscalization of their governments. Even though 100 countries have access to information laws and more than 50 constitutions recognize it as a right, a number of obstacles still stand. Some examples cited by UNCAC Coalition (n. d.b, para. 15-18) are the “poor quality of the legal framework”; “other laws in conflict with access to information”; “lack of citizen awareness”; and “administrative cultures of secrecy”.

Conference of The State Parties to The UN Convention Against Corruption
COSP 
 

Case A: Costa Rica v Nicaragua (2015): Activities in the border area

Case B: Nicaragua v. Costa Rica (2015): Transboundary environmental harm

On November 18th, 2010, Costa Rica filed a lawsuit against Nicaragua in the International Court of Justice (ICJ). About two weeks earlier, Nicaraguan troops crossed the San Juan River, the border between both countries, and set a flag on Calero Island, which belongs to Costa Rica since 1897 but has been strongly contested by Nicaragua. In addition, Google Maps placed the island in Nicaraguan territory – a fact that Mr. Eden Pastora, leader of the excursion, used to justify the alleged invasion (Swaine, 2010, Nov. 8).

However, on December 22nd of the same year, Nicaragua instituted proceedings against Costa Rica alleging “violations of Nicaraguan sovereignty and major environmental damages on its territory” due to the extensive construction of a road along the border (ICJ, n. d.b, para. 1). This was the first – and, so far, the only – decision in the history of the Court on an environmental case. The Ortega government accused Costa Rica of having affected the quality of the water in the San Juan river. According to Nicaragua, these issues would be worsened with time should the ICJ not take urgent action to halt the construction of the road until Costa Rica had commissioned an environmental assessment and submitted it to Managua (ICTSD, 2012).

International Court of Justice
ICJ
 

Topic A: Famine relief plans for Yemen

Topic B: The Situation in Yemen

Aiming to be “the collective voice of the Muslim world”, the Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is one of the largest intergovernmental organizations in the world, second only to the United Nations. Ever since 2004, Houthi rebels have been in conflict against the Yemeni government, although this was restricted to the Saada province in the north of the country. In 2011, amidst the Arab Spring unrest, youth protests were followed by a movement of the political elites in Yemen to replace long-ruling president Ali Abdullah Saleh. Vice-President Abdu Rabbu Mansour Hadi took over the presidency a year later and, supported by the United States, Saudi Arabia, and the UN Security Council began to implement political reform in the country in 2013 (Al Jazeera, 2018, Mar 25 & Sharp, 2017). However, with the apparent failure to reach consensus in the National Dialogue Conference, northern Houthis, supported by forces loyal to ex-president Saleh, launched military offensive weeks prior to the conclusion of the Dialogue. This situation led to a critical humanitarian situation: the risk of a widespread famine crisis in the country.

In Topic B, delegates are expected to discuss the conflict itself – and not only the famine situation – and further understand the "Saudi-Iranian Cold War" and the dynamics of power in the Middle East. In addition, can Islamic countries, some of which feel the direct impact of the conflict inside their own territories, find manners to relieve the rising death toll in Yemen?

Council of Foreign Ministers of The Organization of Islamic Cooperation
OIC
 
 

Topic: Operation Morthor

In July 14th, 1960, the United Nations Security Council established the UN Mission in Congo (ONUC) by resolution 143 (1960) (United Nations, 2001). The country, which had become independent from Belgium just one month earlier, was facing a non-consented occupation of Belgian troops in its territory – under the argument of the need of maintenance of order after a mutiny by the army. In addition, in July 11th, the province of Katanga entered a process of secession from Congo. The Congolese authorities accused Belgium of orchestrating.

The high echelon of ONUC decides to act without the direct consent of the Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to counter mercenaries and to extend a termination point of a section of Katanga, initiating a conflict between ONUC forces and Katanga almost automatically after the outbreak of the operation (Boulden, 2001). Operation Morthor highlighted a number of problems in the command of ONUC and the United Nations organization in relation to the agency's interventions and was the first peacebuilding mission of the UN.

United Nations Operation in The Congo
ONUC
 

Topic: Media, joy, and resistance

The Press Agency is the committee responsible for the coverage, transmission and informing the event. The delegates will act as international journalists, either representing a specific editorial line and writing for the AMUN Blog, or as AMUN TV’s reporters.  Furthermore, an extremely important matter to the coverage process is the Press’ Social Media presence. To deepen delegate’s knowledge and insert them in the context of the 22nd AMUN’s motto, “Joy as a Form of Resistance”, the directors will develop an article that presents and demonstrates media's presence and importance in the democratic process and as a form of resistance.

The Press’ article goal will be to compare and analyze how two simultaneous and deadly military regimes influenced the formation of a counter-attack media, in the form of satirical and non-traditional cartoons. The result expected is that both Quino’s and Henfil’s work helped shape a new form of resistance in a time when democracy seemed lost, and to create a new and important role for the Media.

Press Agency
PRESS

Topic A: Children and armed conflict

Topic B: Rebuilding South Sudan

In 1945, when the United Nations (UN) were created, six main organs of the UN are established and, among them, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). Addressing children security in armed conflicts are becoming increasingly indispensable since they are not only representing civilian losses but also being constantly recruited to fight and often dying in the conflict. Children are (alongside with women) the main targets and those who suffer the most in armed conflicts. Furthermore, are not only being exposed to a vile context, but they are also being deprived of basic services like health care and education (XINHUA, 2017) which are also goals for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN, 2018).

The second topic of discussion will also seek to tackle a pressing issue in international security that is not nearly discussed enough: South Sudan. Despite being the world’s youngest nation, the region of South Sudan has been involved in conflicts for decades. The most recent warfare has ethnic roots and motivations and is characterized by a civil war between the region’s two main ethnicities, Dinka and Nuer. The situation in South Sudan is, therefore, alarming, and has been escalating for the past decade with no signs of improvement.

United Nations Security Council
UNSC
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